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css loader module for webpack

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css-loader

The css-loader interprets @import and url() like import/require() and will resolve them.

Getting Started

⚠ To use css-loader, webpack@5 is required

To begin, you'll need to install css-loader:

npm install --save-dev css-loader

Then add the plugin to your webpack config. For example:

file.js

import css from "file.css";

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        use: ["style-loader", "css-loader"],
      },
    ],
  },
};

And run webpack via your preferred method.

toString

You can also use the css-loader results directly as a string, such as in Angular's component style.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        use: ["to-string-loader", "css-loader"],
      },
    ],
  },
};

or

const css = require("./test.css").toString();

console.log(css); // {String}

If there are SourceMaps, they will also be included in the result string.

If, for one reason or another, you need to extract CSS as a plain string resource (i.e. not wrapped in a JS module) you might want to check out the extract-loader. It's useful when you, for instance, need to post process the CSS as a string.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        use: [
          "handlebars-loader", // handlebars loader expects raw resource string
          "extract-loader",
          "css-loader",
        ],
      },
    ],
  },
};

Options

NameTypeDefaultDescription
url{Boolean|Object}trueAllows to enables/disables url()/image-set() functions handling
import{Boolean|Object}trueAllows to enables/disables @import at-rules handling
modules{Boolean|String|Object}{auto: true}Allows to enables/disables or setup CSS Modules options
sourceMap{Boolean}compiler.devtoolEnables/Disables generation of source maps
importLoaders{Number}0Allows enables/disables or setups number of loaders applied before CSS loader for @import/CSS Modules and ICSS imports
esModule{Boolean}trueUse ES modules syntax

url

Type: Boolean|Object Default: true

Allow to enable/disables handling the CSS functions url and image-set. If set to false, css-loader will not parse any paths specified in url or image-set. A function can also be passed to control this behavior dynamically based on the path to the asset. Starting with version 4.0.0, absolute paths are parsed based on the server root.

Examples resolutions:

url(image.png) => require('./image.png')
url('image.png') => require('./image.png')
url(./image.png) => require('./image.png')
url('./image.png') => require('./image.png')
url('http://dontwritehorriblecode.com/2112.png') => require('http://dontwritehorriblecode.com/2112.png')
image-set(url('image2x.png') 1x, url('image1x.png') 2x) => require('./image1x.png') and require('./image2x.png')

To import assets from a node_modules path (include resolve.modules) and for alias, prefix it with a ~:

url(~module/image.png) => require('module/image.png')
url('~module/image.png') => require('module/image.png')
url(~aliasDirectory/image.png) => require('otherDirectory/image.png')

Boolean

Enable/disable url() resolving.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          url: true,
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};

Object

Allow to filter url(). All filtered url() will not be resolved (left in the code as they were written).

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          url: {
            filter: (url, resourcePath) => {
              // resourcePath - path to css file

              // Don't handle `img.png` urls
              if (url.includes("img.png")) {
                return false;
              }

              return true;
            },
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};

import

Type: Boolean|Object Default: true

Allows to enables/disables @import at-rules handling. Control @import resolving. Absolute urls in @import will be moved in runtime code.

Examples resolutions:

@import 'style.css' => require('./style.css')
@import url(style.css) => require('./style.css')
@import url('style.css') => require('./style.css')
@import './style.css' => require('./style.css')
@import url(./style.css) => require('./style.css')
@import url('./style.css') => require('./style.css')
@import url('http://dontwritehorriblecode.com/style.css') => @import url('http://dontwritehorriblecode.com/style.css') in runtime

To import styles from a node_modules path (include resolve.modules) and for alias, prefix it with a ~:

@import url(~module/style.css) => require('module/style.css')
@import url('~module/style.css') => require('module/style.css')
@import url(~aliasDirectory/style.css) => require('otherDirectory/style.css')

Boolean

Enable/disable @import resolving.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          import: true,
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};

Object

NameTypeDefaultDescription
filter{Function}undefinedAllow to filter @import
filter

Type: Function Default: undefined

Allow to filter @import. All filtered @import will not be resolved (left in the code as they were written).

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          import: {
            filter: (url, media, resourcePath) => {
              // resourcePath - path to css file

              // Don't handle `style.css` import
              if (url.includes("style.css")) {
                return false;
              }

              return true;
            },
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};

modules

Type: Boolean|String|Object Default: undefined

Allows to enable/disable CSS Modules or ICSS and setup configuration:

  • undefined - enable CSS modules for all files matching /\.module\.\w+$/i.test(filename) and /\.icss\.\w+$/i.test(filename) regexp.
  • true - enable CSS modules for all files.
  • false - disables CSS Modules for all files.
  • string - disables CSS Modules for all files and set the mode option, more information you can read here
  • object - enable CSS modules for all files, if modules.auto option is not specified, otherwise the modules.auto option will determine whether if it is CSS modules or not, more information you can read here

The modules option enables/disables the CSS Modules specification and setup basic behaviour.

Using false value increase performance because we avoid parsing CSS Modules features, it will be useful for developers who use vanilla css or use other technologies.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: true,
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};

Features

Scope

Using local value requires you to specify :global classes. Using global value requires you to specify :local classes. Using pure value requires selectors must contain at least one local class or id.

You can find more information here.

Styles can be locally scoped to avoid globally scoping styles.

The syntax :local(.className) can be used to declare className in the local scope. The local identifiers are exported by the module.

With :local (without brackets) local mode can be switched on for this selector. The :global(.className) notation can be used to declare an explicit global selector. With :global (without brackets) global mode can be switched on for this selector.

The loader replaces local selectors with unique identifiers. The chosen unique identifiers are exported by the module.

:local(.className) {
  background: red;
}
:local .className {
  color: green;
}
:local(.className .subClass) {
  color: green;
}
:local .className .subClass :global(.global-class-name) {
  color: blue;
}
._23_aKvs-b8bW2Vg3fwHozO {
  background: red;
}
._23_aKvs-b8bW2Vg3fwHozO {
  color: green;
}
._23_aKvs-b8bW2Vg3fwHozO ._13LGdX8RMStbBE9w-t0gZ1 {
  color: green;
}
._23_aKvs-b8bW2Vg3fwHozO ._13LGdX8RMStbBE9w-t0gZ1 .global-class-name {
  color: blue;
}

ℹ️ Identifiers are exported

exports.locals = {
  className: "_23_aKvs-b8bW2Vg3fwHozO",
  subClass: "_13LGdX8RMStbBE9w-t0gZ1",
};

CamelCase is recommended for local selectors. They are easier to use within the imported JS module.

You can use :local(#someId), but this is not recommended. Use classes instead of ids.

Composing

When declaring a local classname you can compose a local class from another local classname.

:local(.className) {
  background: red;
  color: yellow;
}

:local(.subClass) {
  composes: className;
  background: blue;
}

This doesn't result in any change to the CSS itself but exports multiple classnames.

exports.locals = {
  className: "_23_aKvs-b8bW2Vg3fwHozO",
  subClass: "_13LGdX8RMStbBE9w-t0gZ1 _23_aKvs-b8bW2Vg3fwHozO",
};
._23_aKvs-b8bW2Vg3fwHozO {
  background: red;
  color: yellow;
}

._13LGdX8RMStbBE9w-t0gZ1 {
  background: blue;
}
Importing

To import a local classname from another module.

i We strongly recommend that you specify the extension when importing a file, since it is possible to import a file with any extension and it is not known in advance which file to use.

:local(.continueButton) {
  composes: button from "library/button.css";
  background: red;
}
:local(.nameEdit) {
  composes: edit highlight from "./edit.css";
  background: red;
}

To import from multiple modules use multiple composes: rules.

:local(.className) {
  composes: edit hightlight from "./edit.css";
  composes: button from "module/button.css";
  composes: classFromThisModule;
  background: red;
}
Values

You can use @value to specific values to be reused throughout a document.

We recommend use prefix v- for values, s- for selectors and m- for media at-rules.

@value v-primary: #BF4040;
@value s-black: black-selector;
@value m-large: (min-width: 960px);

.header {
  color: v-primary;
  padding: 0 10px;
}

.s-black {
  color: black;
}

@media m-large {
  .header {
    padding: 0 20px;
  }
}

Boolean

Enable CSS Modules features.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: true,
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};

String

Enable CSS Modules features and setup mode.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          // Using `local` value has same effect like using `modules: true`
          modules: "global",
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};

Object

Enable CSS Modules features and setup options for them.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            mode: "local",
            auto: true,
            exportGlobals: true,
            localIdentName: "[path][name]__[local]--[hash:base64:5]",
            localIdentContext: path.resolve(__dirname, "src"),
            localIdentHashSalt: "my-custom-hash",
            namedExport: true,
            exportLocalsConvention: "camelCase",
            exportOnlyLocals: false,
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};
auto

Type: Boolean|RegExp|Function Default: undefined

Allows auto enable CSS modules/ICSS based on filename when modules option is object.

Possible values:

  • undefined - enable CSS modules for all files.
  • true - enable CSS modules for all files matching /\.module\.\w+$/i.test(filename) and /\.icss\.\w+$/i.test(filename) regexp.
  • false - disables CSS Modules.
  • RegExp - enable CSS modules for all files matching /RegExp/i.test(filename) regexp.
  • function - enable CSS Modules for files based on the filename satisfying your filter function check.
Boolean

Possible values:

  • true - enables CSS modules or interoperable CSS format, sets the modules.mode option to local value for all files which satisfy /\.module(s)?\.\w+$/i.test(filename) condition or sets the modules.mode option to icss value for all files which satisfy /\.icss\.\w+$/i.test(filename) condition
  • false - disables CSS modules or interoperable CSS format based on filename

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            auto: true,
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};
RegExp

Enable css modules for files based on the filename satisfying your regex check.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            auto: /\.custom-module\.\w+$/i,
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};
Function

Enable css modules for files based on the filename satisfying your filter function check.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            auto: (resourcePath) => resourcePath.endsWith(".custom-module.css"),
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};
mode

Type: String|Function Default: 'local'

Setup mode option. You can omit the value when you want local mode.

Controls the level of compilation applied to the input styles.

The local, global, and pure handles class and id scoping and @value values. The icss will only compile the low level Interoperable CSS format for declaring :import and :export dependencies between CSS and other languages.

ICSS underpins CSS Module support, and provides a low level syntax for other tools to implement CSS-module variations of their own.

String

Possible values - local, global, pure, and icss.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            mode: "global",
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};
Function

Allows set different values for the mode option based on a filename

Possible return values - local, global, pure and icss.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            // Callback must return "local", "global", or "pure" values
            mode: (resourcePath) => {
              if (/pure.css$/i.test(resourcePath)) {
                return "pure";
              }

              if (/global.css$/i.test(resourcePath)) {
                return "global";
              }

              return "local";
            },
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};
localIdentName

Type: String Default: '[hash:base64]'

Allows to configure the generated local ident name.

For more information on options see:

Supported template strings:

  • [name] the basename of the resource
  • [path] the path of the resource relative to the compiler.context option or modules.localIdentContext option.
  • [file] - filename and path.
  • [ext] - extension with leading .
  • [hash] - the hash of the string, generated based on localIdentHashSalt, localIdentHashFunction, localIdentHashDigest, localIdentHashDigestLength, localIdentContext, resourcePath and exportName
  • [:hash::] - hash with hash settings.
  • [local] - original class.

Recommendations:

  • use '[path][name]__[local]' for development
  • use '[hash:base64]' for production

The [local] placeholder contains original class.

Note: all reserved (<>:"/\|?*) and control filesystem characters (excluding characters in the [local] placeholder) will be converted to -.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            localIdentName: "[path][name]__[local]--[hash:base64:5]",
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};
localIdentContext

Type: String Default: compiler.context

Allows to redefine basic loader context for local ident name.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            localIdentContext: path.resolve(__dirname, "src"),
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};
localIdentHashSalt

Type: String Default: undefined

Allows to add custom hash to generate more unique classes. For more information see output.hashSalt.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            localIdentHashSalt: "hash",
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};
localIdentHashFunction

Type: String Default: md4

Allows to specify hash function to generate classes . For more information see output.hashFunction.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            localIdentHashFunction: "md4",
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};
localIdentHashDigest

Type: String Default: hex

Allows to specify hash digest to generate classes. For more information see output.hashDigest.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            localIdentHashDigest: "base64",
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};
localIdentHashDigestLength

Type: Number Default: 20

Allows to specify hash digest length to generate classes. For more information see output.hashDigestLength.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            localIdentHashDigestLength: 5,
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};
localIdentRegExp

Type: String|RegExp Default: undefined

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            localIdentRegExp: /page-(.*)\.css/i,
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};
getLocalIdent

Type: Function Default: undefined

Allows to specify a function to generate the classname. By default we use built-in function to generate a classname. If the custom function returns null or undefined, we fallback to the built-in function to generate the classname.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            getLocalIdent: (context, localIdentName, localName, options) => {
              return "whatever_random_class_name";
            },
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};
namedExport

Type: Boolean Default: false

Enables/disables ES modules named export for locals.

⚠ Names of locals are converted to camelcase, i.e. the exportLocalsConvention option has camelCaseOnly value by default.

⚠ It is not allowed to use JavaScript reserved words in css class names.

styles.css

.foo-baz {
  color: red;
}
.bar {
  color: blue;
}

index.js

import { fooBaz, bar } from "./styles.css";

console.log(fooBaz, bar);

You can enable a ES module named export using:

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          esModule: true,
          modules: {
            namedExport: true,
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};

To set a custom name for namedExport, can use exportLocalsConvention option as a function. Example below in the examples section.

exportGlobals

Type: Boolean Default: false

Allow css-loader to export names from global class or id, so you can use that as local name.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            exportGlobals: true,
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};
exportLocalsConvention

Type: String|Function Default: based on the modules.namedExport option value, if true - camelCaseOnly, otherwise asIs

Style of exported class names.

String

By default, the exported JSON keys mirror the class names (i.e asIs value).

⚠ Only camelCaseOnly value allowed if you set the namedExport value to true.

NameTypeDescription
'asIs'{String}Class names will be exported as is.
'camelCase'{String}Class names will be camelized, the original class name will not to be removed from the locals
'camelCaseOnly'{String}Class names will be camelized, the original class name will be removed from the locals
'dashes'{String}Only dashes in class names will be camelized
'dashesOnly'{String}Dashes in class names will be camelized, the original class name will be removed from the locals

file.css

.class-name {
}

file.js

import { className } from "file.css";

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            exportLocalsConvention: "camelCase",
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};
Function

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            exportLocalsConvention: function (name) {
              return name.replace(/-/g, "_");
            },
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            exportLocalsConvention: function (name) {
              return [
                name.replace(/-/g, "_"),
                // dashesCamelCase
                name.replace(/-+(\w)/g, (match, firstLetter) =>
                  firstLetter.toUpperCase()
                ),
              ];
            },
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};
exportOnlyLocals

Type: Boolean Default: false

Export only locals.

Useful when you use css modules for pre-rendering (for example SSR). For pre-rendering with mini-css-extract-plugin you should use this option instead of style-loader!css-loader in the pre-rendering bundle. It doesn't embed CSS but only exports the identifier mappings.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            exportOnlyLocals: true,
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};

importLoaders

Type: Number Default: 0

Allows to enables/disables or setups number of loaders applied before CSS loader for @import at-rules, CSS modules and ICSS imports, i.e. @import/composes/@value value from './values.css'/etc.

The option importLoaders allows you to configure how many loaders before css-loader should be applied to @imported resources and CSS modules/ICSS imports.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        use: [
          "style-loader",
          {
            loader: "css-loader",
            options: {
              importLoaders: 2,
              // 0 => no loaders (default);
              // 1 => postcss-loader;
              // 2 => postcss-loader, sass-loader
            },
          },
          "postcss-loader",
          "sass-loader",
        ],
      },
    ],
  },
};

This may change in the future when the module system (i. e. webpack) supports loader matching by origin.

sourceMap

Type: Boolean Default: depends on the compiler.devtool value

By default generation of source maps depends on the devtool option. All values enable source map generation except eval and false value.

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          sourceMap: true,
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};

esModule

Type: Boolean Default: true

By default, css-loader generates JS modules that use the ES modules syntax. There are some cases in which using ES modules is beneficial, like in the case of module concatenation and tree shaking.

You can enable a CommonJS modules syntax using:

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          esModule: false,
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};

Examples

Recommend

For production builds it's recommended to extract the CSS from your bundle being able to use parallel loading of CSS/JS resources later on. This can be achieved by using the mini-css-extract-plugin, because it creates separate css files. For development mode (including webpack-dev-server) you can use style-loader, because it injects CSS into the DOM using multiple and works faster.

i Do not use together style-loader and mini-css-extract-plugin.

webpack.config.js

const MiniCssExtractPlugin = require("mini-css-extract-plugin");
const devMode = process.env.NODE_ENV !== "production";

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.(sa|sc|c)ss$/,
        use: [
          devMode ? "style-loader" : MiniCssExtractPlugin.loader,
          "css-loader",
          "postcss-loader",
          "sass-loader",
        ],
      },
    ],
  },
  plugins: [].concat(devMode ? [] : [new MiniCssExtractPlugin()]),
};

Disable url resolving using the /* webpackIgnore: true */ comment

With the help of the /* webpackIgnore: true */comment, it is possible to disable sources handling for rules and for individual declarations.

/* webpackIgnore: true */
@import url(./basic.css);
@import /* webpackIgnore: true */ url(./imported.css);

.class {
  /* Disabled url handling for the all urls in the 'background' declaration */
  color: red;
  /* webpackIgnore: true */
  background: url("./url/img.png"), url("./url/img.png");
}

.class {
  /* Disabled url handling for the first url in the 'background' declaration */
  color: red;
  background: 
    /* webpackIgnore: true */ url("./url/img.png"), url("./url/img.png");
}

.class {
  /* Disabled url handling for the second url in the 'background' declaration */
  color: red;
  background: url("./url/img.png"),
    /* webpackIgnore: true */ url("./url/img.png");
}

/* prettier-ignore */
.class {
  /* Disabled url handling for the second url in the 'background' declaration */
  color: red;
  background: url("./url/img.png"),
    /* webpackIgnore: true */ 
    url("./url/img.png");
}

/* prettier-ignore */
.class {
  /* Disabled url handling for third and sixth urls in the 'background-image' declaration */
  background-image: image-set(
    url(./url/img.png) 2x,
    url(./url/img.png) 3x,
    /* webpackIgnore:  true */ url(./url/img.png) 4x,
    url(./url/img.png) 5x,
    url(./url/img.png) 6x,
    /* webpackIgnore:  true */
    url(./url/img.png) 7x
  );
}

Assets

The following webpack.config.js can load CSS files, embed small PNG/JPG/GIF/SVG images as well as fonts as Data URLs and copy larger files to the output directory.

For webpack v5:

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        use: ["style-loader", "css-loader"],
      },
      {
        test: /\.(png|jpe?g|gif|svg|eot|ttf|woff|woff2)$/i,
        // More information here https://webpack.js.org/guides/asset-modules/
        type: "asset",
      },
    ],
  },
};

Extract

For production builds it's recommended to extract the CSS from your bundle being able to use parallel loading of CSS/JS resources later on.

  • This can be achieved by using the mini-css-extract-plugin to extract the CSS when running in production mode.

  • As an alternative, if seeking better development performance and css outputs that mimic production. extract-css-chunks-webpack-plugin offers a hot module reload friendly, extended version of mini-css-extract-plugin. HMR real CSS files in dev, works like mini-css in non-dev

Pure CSS, CSS modules and PostCSS

When you have pure CSS (without CSS modules), CSS modules and PostCSS in your project you can use this setup:

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        // For pure CSS - /\.css$/i,
        // For Sass/SCSS - /\.((c|sa|sc)ss)$/i,
        // For Less - /\.((c|le)ss)$/i,
        test: /\.((c|sa|sc)ss)$/i,
        use: [
          "style-loader",
          {
            loader: "css-loader",
            options: {
              // Run `postcss-loader` on each CSS `@import` and CSS modules/ICSS imports, do not forget that `sass-loader` compile non CSS `@import`'s into a single file
              // If you need run `sass-loader` and `postcss-loader` on each CSS `@import` please set it to `2`
              importLoaders: 1,
            },
          },
          {
            loader: "postcss-loader",
            options: { plugins: () => [postcssPresetEnv({ stage: 0 })] },
          },
          // Can be `less-loader`
          {
            loader: "sass-loader",
          },
        ],
      },
      // For webpack v5
      {
        test: /\.(png|jpe?g|gif|svg|eot|ttf|woff|woff2)$/i,
        // More information here https://webpack.js.org/guides/asset-modules/
        type: "asset",
      },
    ],
  },
};

Resolve unresolved URLs using an alias

index.css

.class {
  background: url(/assets/unresolved/img.png);
}

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        use: ["style-loader", "css-loader"],
      },
    ],
  },
  resolve: {
    alias: {
      "/assets/unresolved/img.png": path.resolve(
        __dirname,
        "assets/real-path-to-img/img.png"
      ),
    },
  },
};

Named export with custom export names

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      {
        test: /\.css$/i,
        loader: "css-loader",
        options: {
          modules: {
            namedExport: true,
            exportLocalsConvention: function (name) {
              return name.replace(/-/g, "_");
            },
          },
        },
      },
    ],
  },
};

Separating Interoperable CSS-only and CSS Module features

The following setup is an example of allowing Interoperable CSS features only (such as :import and :export) without using further CSS Module functionality by setting mode option for all files that do not match *.module.scss naming convention. This is for reference as having ICSS features applied to all files was default css-loader behavior before v4. Meanwhile all files matching *.module.scss are treated as CSS Modules in this example.

An example case is assumed where a project requires canvas drawing variables to be synchronized with CSS - canvas drawing uses the same color (set by color name in JavaScript) as HTML background (set by class name in CSS).

webpack.config.js

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
      // ...
      // --------
      // SCSS ALL EXCEPT MODULES
      {
        test: /\.scss$/,
        exclude: /\.module\.scss$/,
        use: [
          {
            loader: "style-loader",
          },
          {
            loader: "css-loader",
            options: {
              importLoaders: 1,
              modules: {
                mode: "icss",
              },
            },
          },
          {
            loader: "sass-loader",
          },
        ],
      },
      // --------
      // SCSS MODULES
      {
        test: /\.module\.scss$/,
        use: [
          {
            loader: "style-loader",
          },
          {
            loader: "css-loader",
            options: {
              importLoaders: 1,
              modules: {
                mode: "local",
              },
            },
          },
          {
            loader: "sass-loader",
          },
        ],
      },
      // --------
      // ...
    ],
  },
};

variables.scss

File treated as ICSS-only.

$colorBackground: red;
:export {
  colorBackgroundCanvas: $colorBackground;
}

Component.module.scss

File treated as CSS Module.

@import "variables.scss";
.componentClass {
  background-color: $colorBackground;
}

Component.jsx

Using both CSS Module functionality as well as SCSS variables directly in JavaScript.

import svars from "variables.scss";
import styles from "Component.module.scss";

// Render DOM with CSS modules class name
// <div className={styles.componentClass}>
//   <canvas ref={mountsCanvas}/>
// </div>

// Somewhere in JavaScript canvas drawing code use the variable directly
// const ctx = mountsCanvas.current.getContext('2d',{alpha: false});
ctx.fillStyle = `${svars.colorBackgroundCanvas}`;

Contributing

Please take a moment to read our contributing guidelines if you haven't yet done so.

CONTRIBUTING

License

MIT

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Score

Popularity78/100
Quality100/100
Maintenance86/100